Acupuncture is increasingly understood to work through a combination of mechanotransduction involving the extracellular matrix (and connective tissue) and neuromodification of the nervous system. Understanding the neurophysiological implications of placing acupuncture needles in designated points is important to the acupuncture practitioner, as it develops the language of understanding how the practice integrates with a living organism. There are five aspects of neurophysiology to explore. While inseparably linked, they can be understood in categories: 1) Peripheral, 2) Dorsal Root and Spinal, 3) Central, 4) Vagal, and 5) Viscero-somatic convergence. A strong pool of information informs the use of acupuncture in each of these neurological substrates. Certain acupuncture points or procedures may preferentially modify a portion of the system, while others (homeostatic points) tend to influence the whole.